(= pracovní poměr) there are two “versions” based on the number of hours you work weekly: there are full time contracts and part time contracts. Both these types give you full social & health security.
This is the most usual type of employment contract in the Czech Republic. The salary (=plat) or wages (=mzda) is expressed as a monthly gross income, not yearly as in some countries.
People usually work 40 hours a week (8 hours/day). After a maximum of 6 hours of work, you are entitled to and also obliged to a 30-minute break for taking a rest and a meal. Those 30 minutes can be split into shorter breaks, out of which at least one must be at least 15 minutes long. The thirty minutes are not included in the working hours and you cannot enjoy them at the beginning or the end of the workday, so actually the workday is 8.5 hours a day (including the break).
You will also usually receive 4-5 weeks of paid leave every year. First, there is usually the probationary period (=zkušební doba). It can take a maximum of 3 months, or 6 months with a managerial position. If a contract is shorter than 6 months, the probationary period can be a maximum of half the length of the employment. During the probationary period, both the employer and the employee may decide to stop the contract without any notice or stating any reasons. After the probationary period one cannot leave the job immediately, but has to hand in a job termination statement (=výpověď). Usually a two-month notice period starts to run on the first day of the month following its delivery to the employer. The job termination statement / or redundancy dismissal statement from the employer also has a two-month notice period. The employment relationship may also end by mutual agreement, on which both the employee and the employer must agree.
You have to pay health insurance, social insurance and taxes from your gross salary and the employer will automatically deduct the payments for you. Moreover, the employer pays extra health insurance and social insurance fees for you which makes this type of an employment contract a very good choice for social security (and later also retirement pension, although this differs by the country of origin). You can also take sick leave and maternity leave. Also, if you work long enough, you might be entitled to unemployment benefits if you lose the job.
This contract is suitable e.g. for people caring for a young child, pregnant women or those caring for a disabled person. Unless there are serious operational reasons, the employer is obliged to comply with your request for reducing your contract from full time to part time. For example, an employee works 4 hours a day, 5 days a week. Working conditions are the same as for full-time work: the employee is entitled to a proportionate share of the paid leave and company benefits, and the employee is entitled to maternity or sick leave, as well as unemployment benefits.
Both of the above-mentioned contracts can be concluded either for an indefinite period (= na dobu neurčitou) or for a fixed-term (= na dobu určitou). The fixed term can be agreed upon for a maximum of 3 years and can be extended a maximum of 2 times, otherwise you either have to leave or the contract must be changed into a contract for an indefinite period.